This page was processed by aws-apollo5 in 0. Skip to main content. Copy URL. Abstract Despite the huge evidence on the adverse impact of extractive policies, we still lack a formal framework to identify their origins and role. Register to save articles to your library Register.
Paper statistics. Paul L. Green at Cornell University. Economic History eJournal Follow. Stephan at University of Virginia School of Law. The Montessori family moved to Florence in and to Rome in because of her father's work. Montessori entered a public elementary school at the age of 6 in , her early school record was "not noteworthy", although she was awarded certificates for good behavior in the 1st grade and for "lavori donneschi", or "women's work", the next year. In or , at the age of 13, Montessori entered a secondary, technical school, Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti , where she studied Italian, algebra , accounting, history and sciences, she graduated in with good grades and examination results.
That year, at the age of 16, she continued at the technical institute Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci , studying Italian, history, geography and ornate drawing, chemistry, botany and two foreign languages, she did well in the sciences and in mathematics. She intended to pursue the study of engineering upon graduation, an unusual aspiration for a woman in her time and place. However, by the time she graduated in at the age of 20, with a certificate in physics—mathematics, she had decided to study medicine instead, an more unlikely pursuit given cultural norms at the time.
Montessori moved forward with her intention to study medicine, she appealed to Guido Baccelli , the professor of clinical medicine at the University of Rome, but was discouraged. Nonetheless, in , she enrolled in the University of Rome in a degree course in natural sciences, passing examinations in botany, experimental physics , histology and general and organic chemistry, earning her diploma di licenza in ; this degree, along with additional studies in Italian and Latin , qualified her for entrance into the medical program at the University in She was met with hostility and harassment from some medical students and professors because of her gender; because her attendance of classes with men in the presence of a naked body was deemed inappropriate, she was required to perform her dissections of cadavers alone, after hours.
She resorted to smoking tobacco to mask the offensive odor of formaldehyde. Montessori won an academic prize in her first year, in secured a position as a hospital assistant, gaining early clinical experience. In her last two years she studied pediatrics and psychiatry , worked in the pediatric consulting room and emergency service, becoming an expert in pediatric medicine. Montessori graduated from the University of Rome in as a doctor of medicine, her thesis was published in in the journal Policlinico. She found employment as an assistant at the University hospital and started a private practice.
From to , Montessori worked with and researched so-called "phrenasthenic" children—in modern terms, children experiencing some form of mental retardation, illness, or disability. She began to travel, study and publish nationally and internationally, coming to prominence as an advocate for women's rights and education for mentally disabled children. On March 31, , her only child -- a son named. Mario Montessori was born out of her love affair with Giuseppe Montesano, a fellow doctor, co-director with her of the Orthophrenic School of Rome.
If Montessori married, she would be expected to cease working professionally. Montessori wanted to keep the relationship with her child's father secret under the condition that neither of them would marry anyone else; when the father of her child fell in love and subsequently married, Montessori was left feeling betrayed and decided to leave the university hospital and place her son into foster care with a family living in the countryside opting to miss the first few years of his life.
She would be reunited with her son in his teenage years, where he proved to be a great assistant in her research. After graduating from the University of Rome in , Montessori continued with her research at the University's psychiatric clinic, in she was accepted as a voluntary assistant there; as part of her work, she visited asylums in Rome where she observed children with mental disabilities, observations which were fundamental to her future educational work.
Maria was intrigued by Itard's ideas and created a far more specific an. It killed more than 5. This led to starvation resulting in the death of an estimated third of the human population of Ethiopia and two-thirds of the Maasai people of Tanzania ; the virus is thought to have been introduced into Eritrea in by Indian cattle brought by the Italians for their campaign against Somalia.
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It spread throughout the Horn of Africa , crossed the Zambezi in March of Sunseri, Thaddeus. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Oxford University Press. His grandfather had emigrated from the ghetto in Leghorn to Egypt where he had built up an enormous fortune as a banker. After graduating in law in Pisa in , Sonnino became a diplomat and an official at the Italian embassies in Madrid , Vienna and Paris , from until , his family lived at the Castello Sonnino near Leghorn.
He retired from the diplomatic service in In , Sonnino traveled to Sicily with Leopoldo Franchetti to conduct a private investigation into the state of Sicilian society. In , the two men published their research on Sicily in a substantial two-part report for the Italian Parliament. In the first part Sonnino analysed the lives of the island's landless peasants.
business-unlimited.com/modules/download/bajij-running-mac-os.php Leopoldo Franchetti's half of the report and Administrative Conditions in Sicily, was an analysis of the Mafia in the nineteenth century, still considered authoritative today. Franchetti would influence public opinion about the Mafia more than anyone else until Giovanni Falcone over a hundred years later. In , Sonnino and Franchetti started a newspaper, which changed from weekly economic reviews to daily political issues. He supported universal suffrage. Sonnino soon became one of the leading opponents of the Liberal Left ; as a strict constitutionalist he favoured strong government to resist pressure of special interests, making him a conservative liberal.
Sonnino envisaged to establish a single bank of issue, but the main priority of his bank reform was to solve the financial problems of the Banca Romana, as well as to cover up the scandal which involved the political class, rather than to design a new national banking system; the newly established Banca d'Italia was the result of a merger of three existing banks of issue.
Regional interests were still strong; as Minister of the Treasury Sonnino restructured public finances, imposing new taxes and cutting public spending. The budget deficit was reduced, from million lire in to 36 million in After the fall of the Crispi government as a result of the lost Battle of Adwa in March , he served as the leader of the opposition conservatives against the liberal Giovanni Giolitti. In January , Sonnino published an article titled Torniamo allo Statuto, in which he sounded the alarm about the threats that the clergy and socialists posed to liberalism.
He called for the abolition of the system of parliamentary governments and the return of the royal prerogative to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister without consulting parliament, as the only possible way to avert the danger. In he founded Il Giornale d'Italia. In response the social reforms presented by the Prime Minister Giuseppe Zanardelli in November , Sonnino introduced a reform bill to alleviate poverty in southern Italy ; the bill provided for a reduction of the land tax in Sicily and Sardinia , the facilitation of agricultural credit, the re-establishment of the system of perpetual lease for small holdings dissemination and enhancement of agrarian contracts in order to combine the interests of farmers with those of the land-owners.
Sonnino criticised the usual approach to solve the crisis through public works: "to construct railways where there is no trade is like giving a spoon to a man who has nothing to eat. Sonnino served twice as Prime Minister. On 8 February Sonnino formed his first government, he proposed major changes to transform Southern Italy , which provoked opposition from the ruling groups.
Land taxes were to be reduced by one-third, except for the big landowners, he proposed the establishment of provincial banks and to subsidize schools. His reforms provoked opposition from the ruling groups, he was succeeded by Giovanni Giolitti. On 11 December Sonnino formed his second government, with a strong connotation to the centre-right , but it did not last much longer, falling on 21 March After the events in , Sonnino was supportive to the side of the old allies of the Triple Alliance and Austria-Hungary , he believed that Italian self-interest entailed participation in the war, with its prospect of Italian territorial gains as a completion of Italian unification.
However, after becomi. Italy covers an area of , km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.
Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa , Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia , while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe , North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana , a period of more than years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished.
Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages , Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe.
The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism , science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Raphael and Machiavelli. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the midth century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in , establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation , fuelling a large and influential diaspora.
Despite being one of the main victors in World War I , Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Mill , was a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant.